The second week’s reading assignment for my online class on Fantasy and Science Fiction: The Human Mind, Our Modern World was Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (1865: University of Adelaide, with Sir John Tenniel’s illustrations; Project Gutenberg, with Arthur Rackham’s illustrations) and Through the Looking-Glass (1872: University of Adelaide, with Sir John Tenniel’s illustrations; Project Gutenberg, no illustrations).
I first read these books as a kid, in a well annotated edition featuring, I believe, the translation by Henri Parisot. At any rate, I still remember the first verse of Jabberwocky:
Il était grilheure; les slictueux toves
Gyraient sur l’alloinde et vriblaient
Tout flivoreux vaguaint les borogoves
Les verchons fourgus bourniflaient.
This is the first work that made me realise how complex an enterprise translating from one language to another can be. Until then, I assumed that words were objective entities, there was a correct label for everything, and translating merely meant grabbing the proper label from another shelf — German, English or Chinese. Alice gave me a glimpse into the complexities of language. I was particularly surprised and delighted by Humpty Dumpty’s relationship with words. My love of language is still untarnished decades later!
Anyhow, here is my 300-word essay, with the numbered references listed below. I also added hyperlinks to relevant illustrations, for your enjoyment.
Mathematician Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (Lewis Carroll) gave us Alice in Wonderland, two volumes filled with mathematical, logic, and cryptographic challenges. While some obscure jokes only made sense to residents of Oxford, or even only to the Liddells, Carroll presented different levels of challenges for readers, from ones that children would be able to catch, all the way up to difficult ones meant for Carroll’s academic peers.  
Carroll initially planned on illustrating Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland himself, but could not achieve the quality he desired. Instead, he approached prominent artist John Tenniel; securing his talent for Alice was a great success for Carroll.   Carroll’s instructions for the images went into unusual detail, and Tenniel in return influenced the form and content of the book.   
We might overlook certain puzzles and clues were it not for Tenniel’s illustrations, for example the presence of the Mad Hatter and the March Hare from Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland as the White King’s messengers in Chapters 5 and 7 of Through the Looking-Glass, or the White Knight’s luggage in Chapter 8, connecting to other parts of the books.  The Hare and Hatter‘s presence clear up what some have called a mystery: why did Carroll not show any bishops in his chess game?   The answer: Hatter and Hare, the mad messengers, are these bishops. In all Germanic languages except English and Icelandic, this chess piece is actually called a runner or messenger; in some Romance languages like French and Romanian, it is called a fool or madman.
Showing bishops in Wonderland might have offended some readers, calling them mad doubly so. But Tenniel’s illustrations slyly make the multilingual joke visible. Carroll’s Wonderland is a disconcerting place; Tenniel’s illustrations
provide clues provide us with sign posts on the path.
 Martin Gardner, Introduction and notes to The Annotated Alice: The Definitive Edition, 2000. http://pdfcast.org/pdf/alice-in-wonderland
 Melanie Bayley, March 7, 2010, “Algebra in Wonderland,” in: New York Times. http://www.massline.org/ScottH/science/MathOfAliceInWonderland-100308.pdf
 Edward Wakeling, 2008. John Tenniel (1820-1914). http://www.wakeling.demon.co.uk/page10-Tenniel.htm
 Stuart Dodgson Collingwood, 1989. The Life and Letters of Lewis Carroll (Rev. C. L. Dodgson). http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/11483
 Isaac Asimov, 1974. “The Curious Omission,” in: Tales of the Black Widowers. http://www.ebooktrove.com/Asimov, Isaac/Asimov, Isaac – Black Widowers 01 – Tales of the Black Widow.pdf
Edit: One typo marked out with strikethrough.